DOI: 10.36719/2706-6185/02/18-35
Ярослав Валентинович Пилипчук
Национальный педагогический университет им. М.П. Драгоманова
Киев, Украина 


Ключевые слова: Абхазское княжество, абхазы, абазины, Шарвашидзе, Маршаниа, Одиши, Сабедиано, мингрелы, турки, Османская империя, Российская империя, русские.

The Abkhazian Principality and Abazins
BETWEEN THE Turks and the Russian Empire
This paper is devoted to the history of the relationship of Abkhazians and Abazines with the Mingrels, Turkic world and the Russians. Abkhazian mtavarist developed on the basis of the Tskhum eristavarist. During the XV century - the first half of the XVII century. Abkhazia was an integral part of the Mingrel principalities of Sabediano and Odishi. The region was actually ruled by the Georgian Sharvashidze dynasty. During the XVII century. Abkhazians put pressure on the Mingrels and advanced their border to the Enguri River. They took an active part in the strife in Mingrelia. In the XVIII century. Abkhazians put pressure on the Ottoman possessions in XVIII cebtury. Abkhazia despite the formal vassalage from the Ottoman Empire was practically an independent principality, which at one time was divided into a number of destinies and free societies. The specific principality of Samurzakan had a mixed (Abkhazs and Mingrels) ethnic composition of the population. The most powerful Abkhaz ruler was Keleshbey, who maneuvered between the Ottomans and the Russian Empire in fact maintained independence. He combined several destinies into a single state. Seferbey (Giorgi Sharvashidze) and Hamutbey (Mikheil Sharvashidze) were in fact Russian demonstrators, who did not find support among the people. However, Mikheil Sharvashidze tried to pursue an independent policy. He fought with the Mingrel Dadiani for control of Samurzakano and strengthened power over the mountainous free societies of Abkhazia. During the Crimean War, he maneuvered between the Ottomans and the Romanovs. The disgraced Aslanbey and Hasanbey also enjoyed wide support among the people. The Abkhazian rebelled against the Russians several times in the XIX century. This was often associated with the offensive of the Russians on the rights of the Abkhazian princes and the mountain free societies. The main initiators of the confrontation with the Russians were the Tsebeldin princes Marshania. The mountain communities of Tsebelda, Pskhu and Dal became deserted as a result of Abkhazian mahajirism. Southern Abazins-Sadzes gravitated towards Abkhazia and depended on it. They supported Aslanbey in his struggle against the Russians. They were also strongly associated with the Ubykhs and the Circassian tribes who took part in the Caucasian war. Part of the Circassian tribes of the XVIII century were assimilated abazins. Northern Abaza made up free societies. The attempts of the Crimean Gherays to subjugate them to themselves were unsuccessful. The presence of Nogays and Turks in the Abazin lands was episodic. In the XVI - XVII centuries. The northern Abazins were subjects of Greater and Lesser Kabarda, and they also sent embassies to the Russians in Moscow and Tersky town. They were loyal to the Russian authorities and reacted to the infringement of rights migration to the mountains. Southern Abazins (Jigets) since the 40-ies of XIX century they became subjects of the Russian Empire. 

Key words: Abkhazian principality, Abkhazians, Abazins, Sharvashidze, Marshania, Turks, Ottoman Empire, Odishi, Sabeianom Mingrels, Russian Empire, Russians 

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