Mahira Aydin Veliyeva
Scientific Research Institute for Plant Protection and Industrial Crops
PHYTO-CLIMATIC OBSERVATIONS ENSURING THE INCREASE OF THE COTTON YIELD
The factors affecting on the decrease of cotton productivity are discussed in the article. With this purpose, the foundation for the research work on the study “Influence of external factors and components of agro-technical cultivation on the degree of falling fruit organs of cotton” was laid in 2011. The research work had been carried out in four-rowed plots with 100 m of length, 12 variants with four-fold repetition. The total area of experimental plot formed 11520 m2. The results of observations and calculations based on studies conducted under three sharply differing irrigation regimes, two plant densities and the use of micro-elements in two periods are analyzed. There are a lot of difficulties in growing a systematically stable crop from cotton fields. One of them is falling of fruit organs. Falling of fruit organs of cotton plant (bud, flower, ovary) due to physiological decline and violation of agro-technical measures forms 50-60% and sometimes more.
Falling of fruit organs also depends on hereditary factors. Lack or abundance of moisture content of the soil, unbalanced fertilizers, strong winds, excessive heat, damage by diseases and pests, etc. Reinforce the falling process, which leads to lower yields. An urgent task is to study ways for regulating the global problem - to reduce the fall of the fruit organs in order to increase productivity.
The influence of phytoclimate, plant density and microclimate was studied under three different irrigation regimes. Systematic observations over the soil temperature had been conducted from the beginning to the end of the vegetation period. As a result of the study, it was found that the soil under the vegetative layer warms up later. There is a continuous heat exchange between the soil surface and the lower layers.
The study of the relationship between the temperature conditions and the growth and development of plants is of great significance in the practice of agricultural crops. For this purpose, the effect of changes in soil temperature on cotton field under the influence of irrigation regimes on productivity, growth and development of plants is determined.
The influence of irrigation - the most important element of the complex of agro-technical methods - on change of soil temperature, duration of the each irrigation, soil cooling depth, productiveness, growth and development of plants is studied in the article.
Key words: fruit organs, fall, irrigation regime, hard, optimal, high, soil temperature, maximum and minimum temperatures
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